Key Materials For Lithium-Ion Batteries Near Limits

Positive electrode, negative electrode and electrolyte are the key materials of lithium battery. After years of technological development, their potential has been deeply explored, and they are close to the limit value of material performance.

The limit value of cathode material of lithium iron phosphate battery and ternary lithium battery shows great difference. Several years ago, industry experts said the energy density "ceiling" of lithium iron phosphate batteries was about 180Wh/kg. Later, that number was breached, but not because the researchers' conclusions were wrong. It is known that the energy density is not only related to the positive material, but also to the negative material. In the early years, graphite was commonly used as the negative electrode of lithium batteries. Now silicon is added, with the help of silicon carbon negative electrode, the energy density of lithium iron phosphate batteries has been further improved. The energy density of teradic lithium batteries is higher than that of lithium iron phosphate batteries, but the potential of the material is also tapped to the limit.

Power batteries have been called lithium batteries because both lithium iron phosphate and ternary lithium batteries contain lithium metal. However, lithium does not play the same role in existing lithium batteries as in semi-solid and solid-state batteries. In existing power batteries, lithium is mainly used in cathode materials and electrolytes, Zhang said. In gel and semisolid batteries, lithium has been used more and more in the technology of anode material prelithium. In quasi-solid and all-solid batteries, lithium metal anode will be used to further increase its application scenarios.

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